Tongue Segmentation

Upper surface of a 3D rectangularFinite Element Model, with 5 independently controlled tongue segments.

FEM Settings

  • A. Five segments of SL active.
  • B. Segment one of SL active.
  • GG and Verticalis are always contracted at the tip (seg. 1).
  • Superior longitudinal (SL) activity differs in A and B.
  • B is more consistent with retroflexion (MRI picture).


Uncorrolated Segmental Movement of the Tongue
Movies Segmental Motion
 rang_ran_slow tseg_rang‌ 

The tongue can be divided into independently controlled (uncorrelated) “functional segments.” The movie shows five coronal tongue slices from front to back for “it ran” and “it rang” (red) and their reconstructed surface motion. At left are the tongue shape differences at each segment.

To see the raw data click here. To see the full 3D movies click here.

Stone, M., Epstein, M., and Iskarous, K. Functional segments in tongue movement. International Journal of Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics. (to appear 2004) Click here to download.

Yang, CS., and Stone, M., (2002) Dynamic Programming Method For Temporal Registration Of Three-Dimensional Tongue Surface Motion From Multiple Utterances. Speech Communication. Vol. 38, Nos. 1-2, September 2002, pp. 199-207. Click here to download.