Tongue Segmentation

Upper surface of a 3D rectangularFinite Element Model, with 5 independently controlled tongue segments.

FEM Settings

  • A. Five segments of SL active.
  • B. Segment one of SL active.
  • GG and Verticalis are always contracted at the tip (seg. 1).
  • Superior longitudinal (SL) activity differs in A and B.
  • B is more consistent with retroflexion (MRI picture).


Uncorrolated Segmental Movement of the Tongue
Movies Segmental Motion
 rang_ran_slow tseg_rang‌ 

The tongue can be divided into independently controlled (uncorrelated) “functional segments.” The movie shows five coronal tongue slices from front to back for “it ran” and “it rang” (red) and their reconstructed surface motion. At left are the tongue shape differences at each segment.