Dr. Mary Anne Melo, DDS, MS, PhD
Associate Professor, Director of Operative Dentistry Division
Dr. Melo obtained her DDS (2000), Operative Residency (2004), Master (2009) and Ph.D. (2012) from the Federal University of Ceara, Brazil. She was a Fulbright fellow (2011-2012) at Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Division- UMB.
She is Director of the Division of Operative Dentistry and holds an appointment as Clinical Associate Professor at SOD-UMB. Dr. Melo teaches Operative Dentistry and serves as an instructor in several Restorative Dentistry pre-clinical disciplines. She also serves as an advisor to graduate theses in the School of Dentistry for the Master of Science in Biomedical Sciences Program for Advanced General Dentistry and Ph.D. Program in Biomedical Sciences on the Dental Biomaterials track. As a member of the American Dental Education Association, she has served as a mentor for the Academic Dental Careers Fellowship Program.
Her clinical areas of interest are minimally invasive dentistry, management of high caries risk patients, and esthetic dentistry. She has extensive training and experience in esthetic dentistry, especially with direct restorations.
As a clinician-scientist, she is also actively involved in dental research, particularly in areas of antibiofilm approaches: 1) Nanotechnology-based dental materials with functionalities for caries-inhibiting, antibacterial, or remineralization (Fig.1) and 2) Mechanism of action/interactions of the experimental modality of antibacterial photodynamic therapy, including the types of sensitizing agents used and the various light/laser sources that can be applied to dental field (Fig.2).
Dr. Melo’s studies the interactions between oral biofilms and dental biomaterials using advanced oral biofilm models, including genetically-engineered and patient-derived versions of inoculum directly from the oral cavity. Her works emphasis on developing novel strategies to reduce the initiation and progression of dental caries. She lectures regionally and nationally on topics related to antibiofilm approaches.
Dr. Melo is a current member of the Academy of Operative Dentistry; the International Association for Dental Research; the Society for Color and Appearance in Dentistry, and American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. Dr. Melo has published over 60 research articles and serves as a reviewer for several journals in Dentistry, Medicine, and Biomaterials.
Published Review Papers
- Balhaddad AA, Kansara AA, Hidan D, Weir MD, Xu HHK, Melo MA. Toward dental caries: Exploring nanoparticle-based platforms and calcium phosphate compounds for dental restorative materials. Bioactive Materials. doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2018.12.002
- Zhang K, Baras B, Lynch CD, Weir MD, Melo MA, Li Y, Reynolds MA, Bai Y, Wang L, Wang S, Xu HHK. Developing a New Generation of Therapeutic Dental Polymers to Inhibit Oral Biofilms and Protect Teeth. Materials (Basel). 2018 Sep 17;11(9). pii: E1747. doi: 10.3390/ma11091747. Review.
- Melo MA; Weir MD; Li F.; Cheng L.; Zhang K, Xu HHK. Control of Biofilm at the Tooth-Restoration Bonding Interface: A Question for Antibacterial Monomers? A Critical Review. Rev. Adhesion Adhesives 2017.v.3 (8) p. 287-305.
- Melo MAS, Guedes SFF, Xu HHK, Rodrigues LKA. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management. Trends Biotechnol. 2013 Aug; 31(8):459-67.
- Zhang N, Ma Y, Weir M, Xu HHK, Bai Y, Melo MA. Current Insights into the Modulation of Oral Bacterial Degradation of Dental Polymeric Restorative Materials Materials (Basel) 2017 May; 10(5): 507
- Melo MA. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy as a strategy for dental caries: building a more conservative therapy in restorative dentistry. Photomed Laser Surg. 2014 Nov; 32(11):589-91.
- Melo MAS; Silva TPT; Saboia VPA. “Utilização de Pinos Intra-radiculares em reconstrucoes amplas de dentes anteriores” (Use of Intra-radicular posts in the rehabilitation of anterior teeth- review). JBC. Jornal Brasileiro de Clínica Odontológica Integrada e Saúde Bucal Coletiva, v. ed esp, p. 01-10, 2006. (In Portuguese-PT-BR).
Published Peer-Reviewed Papers
- Balhaddad AA, Melo MA, Gregory RL. Inhibition of Nicotine-Induced Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation by Salts Solutions Intended for Mouthrinses. Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics-RDE. 2018 [Epub ahead of print]
- Xiao S, Wang H, Liang K, Tay F, Weir MD, Melo MA, Wang L, Wu Y, Oates TW, Ding Y, Xu HHK.Novel multifunctional nanocomposite for root caries restorations to inhibit periodontitis-related pathogens. J Dent. 2018 Dec 12. pii: S0300-5712(18)30420-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2018.12.001. [Epub ahead of print]
- Xie X, Wang L, Xing D, Qi M, Li X, Sun J, Melo MA, Weir MD, Oates TW, Bai Y, Xu HHK. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate nanoparticle-filled dental cement. Dent Mater J. 2018 Dec 1. doi: 10.4012/dmj.2017-420. [Epub ahead of print]
- Al-Dulaijan YA, Weir MD, Melo MA, Sun J, Oates TW, Zhang K, Xu HHK. Protein-repellent nanocomposite with rechargeable calcium and phosphate for long-term ion release. Dent Mater. 2018 Dec;34(12):1735-1747. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.09.005. Epub 2018 Sep 27.
- Wang H, Wang S, Cheng L, Jiang Y, Melo MA, Weir MD, Oates TW, Zhou X, Xu HHK. Novel dental composite with capability to suppress cariogenic species and promote non-cariogenic species in oral biofilms. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2019 Jan 1;94:587-596. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.10.004. Epub 2018 Oct 2.
- Melo MA, Weir M, Passos VF, Lima JP, Lynch CD, Rodrigues LK, Xu HK.Human in situ study of the effect of bis(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide immobilized in dental composite on controlling mature cariogenic biofilm. International Journal Molecular Sciences 2018 [Epub ahead of print]
- Ibrahim MS, Al-Qarni FD, Yousif AA, Weir MD, Oates TW, Xu HHK and Melo MA. Tuning Nano-amorphous Calcium Phosphate Content in Novel Rechargeable Antibacterial Dental Sealant. Materials 2018 11(9), 1544
- Al-Qarni F.D., Tay F, Weir MD, Melo MA, Sun J, Oates TW, Xie X, Xu HHK. Protein-repelling adhesive resin containing calcium phosphate nanoparticles with repeated ion-recharge and re-releases. J Dent 2018 Nov;78:91-99.
- Seung J, Weir MD, Melo MA, Romberg E, Nosrat A, Xu HHK, Tordik PA. A Modified Resin Sealer: Physical and Antibacterial Properties. J Endod. 2018 Oct;44(10):1553-1557. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.06.016. Epub 2018 Aug 31.
- Passos VF, Melo MA, Silva FFC, Rodrigues LK, Santiago SL.Camellia Sinensis active compound and derivates responding to erosive attacks on dentin. Braz Oral Res 2018 Mar; 3:32-40.
- Al Dulaijan Y., Cheng L, Weir, M., Melo MA, Liu H, Oates T, Wang L., Xu HK. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate nanocomposite with antibacterial activity to suppress biofilm acids and dental caries. J Dent 2018 May;72:44-52
- Xianju Xie, Lin Wang, Dan Xing, Manlin Qi, Xiaodong Li, Jirun Sun, Melo MA , Michael D. Weir, Thomas W. Oates, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H. K. Xu. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate nanoparticle-filled dental cement. Dental Materials Journal 2018 [Epub ahead of print]
- Sultan H, Tayebi L, Dashtimoghadam N, Yadong J, Melo MA, Xu H, Weir M, Zhihong N, Depireux D, Kong C, Lin X, Masri R. Nanomagnetic-mediated drug delivery for the treatment of dental disease. Nanomedicine 2018 Apr;14(3):919-927
- Al Saeed T, Nosrat, A, Melo MA, Wang P, Romberg E, Xu H, Fouad AF. Antibacterial Efficacy and Discoloration Potential of Endodontic Topical Antibiotics. J Endon.2018 [Epub ahead of print]
- Lin Y, Xing Q, Qin W, Melo MA, Zou R, Xu M, Zhang X, Xu HK and Lin ZM. Decreased expression of Semaphorin3A/Neuropilin1 signaling axis in apical periodontitis. BioMed Research International, 2017 (2017), Article ID 8724503,1- 9.
- Park J and Melo MA. “Restoring Multiple Anterior Crown Fractures with Combined Technique using Direct Composite Layering and Glass-Fiber-Post: A Case Report with 5 yrs - Follow up”. EC Dental Science 14.6 (2017): 242-248.
- Zhang N, Zhang K, Melo MA, Weir M, Xu DJ, Bai Y, Xu HH. Effects of Long-Term Water-Aging on Novel Anti-Biofilm and Protein-Repellent Dental Composite. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Jan 18;18(1).
- Kocan J, Weir MD, Melo MA. Investigation of bacterial adhesion on nanoparticle filler -reinforced dental composites after different one-step finishing timing using a Constant-Depth Film Fermenter. Nano Research & Applications 2017 .v3 n.3:11,1-6.
- Chen C, Weir MD; Wang L.; Zhou X.; Xu HHK, Melo MA. Dental Composite Formulation Design with Bioactivity on Protein Adsorption Combined with Crack-Healing Capability. J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8, 40.
- Feng X, Zhang N, Xu HH, Weir M, Melo MA, Bai Y, Zhang K. Novel orthodontic cement containing dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate with strong antibacterial capability. Dent Mater J. 2017 [Epub ahead of print]
- Cawthon IA and Melo MA. Esthetic Achievement with All-Ceramic Onlay Restorations for Rehabilitation of Compromised Fluorotic Permanent Molars. EC Dental Science 2017;11.5: 177-183
- Chang L, Zhang K, Zhang N, Melo MA, Weir M, Bai Y, Xu HH, Reynolds MA. Developing a New Generation of Antimicrobial and Bioactive Dental Resins. Journal of Dental Research. 2017 Jul;96(8):855-863.
- Melo MAS, Powers M, Passos VF, Weir MD, Xu HH. Ph-activated nano-amorphous calcium phosphate-based cement to reduce dental enamel demineralization. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology.2017 Dec;45(8):1778-1785.
- Zhang N, Melo MA, Weir M, Reynolds MA, Bai Y, Xu HH. Do Dental Resin Composites Accumulate More Oral Biofilms and Plaque than Amalgam and Glass Ionomer Materials? Materials. 2016 Nov; 9, 888.
- Wang L J, Melo MA, Weir MD, Xie X, Reynolds M, Xu HH. Novel bioactive nanocomposite for Class-V restorations to inhibit periodontitis-related pathogens. Dent Mater. 2016 Dec;32(12):e351-e361
- Melo MAS, Passos VF, Lima JP, Santiago, SL; Rodrigues LKA. Carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks exhibits risks for human enamel surface loss. Restor Dent Endod. 2016 Nov;41(4):246-254.
- Orrego S, Melo MA, Lee SH, Xu HH, Arola DD. Fatigue of human dentin by cyclic loading and during oral biofilm challenge. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2016 Jun 21. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.33729. [Epub ahead of print]
- Zhang N, Melo MA, Antonucci J, Lin N, Lin-Gibson S, Bai Y, Xu HH. Novel dental cement to combat biofilms and reduce acids for orthodontic applications to avoid enamel demineralization. Materials. 2016, 9(6), 413.
- Zhang N, Weir MD, Chen C, Melo MA, Bai Y, Xu HH. Orthodontic cement with protein-repellent and antibacterial properties and the release of calcium and phosphate ions. J Dent. 2016 2016;50:51–59.
- Melo MAS, Souza R, Passos VF, Lima JP, Santiago, SL; Rodrigues LKA. Erosion-preventive effect of pediatric fluoridated toothpaste on primary enamel. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2016 9:(4) 1-5.
- de Moraes MD, Melo MA, Bezerra DD, Costa LS, Saboía VP, Rodrigues LK. Clinical study of the caries-preventive effect of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations: aging versus the influence of fluoride dentifrice. J Investig Clin Dent. 2016 May;7(2):180-6.
- Zhang N, Zhang K, Melo MA, Chen C, Fouad AF, Bai Y, Xu HH. Novel protein-repellent and biofilm-repellent orthodontic cement containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphoryl choline. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2016 Jul;104(5):949-59.
- Melo MA, Orrego S, Weir MD, Xu HH, Arola DD. Designing multi-agent dental materials for enhanced resistance to biofilm damage at the bonded interface. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016 11;8(18):11779-87.
- Wu J, Weir MD, Melo MA, Strassler HE, Xu HH. Effects of water-aging on self-healing dental composite containing microcapsules. J Dent. 2016 Apr;47:86-93
- Wu J, Zhou H, Weir MD, Zhang Q, Zhou C. Melo MA, Xu HH. Novel self-healing dental resin with microcapsules of polymerizable triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and N,N-dihydroxyethyl-p-toluidine. Dent Mater. 2016 Feb;32(2):294-304.
- Melo MA, Rolim JP, Passos VF, Lima RA, Zanin IC, Codes BM, Rocha SS, Rodrigues LK. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and Ultraconservative Caries Removal Linked for Management of Deep Caries Lesions. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2015 Dec;12(4):581-6.
- Wu J, Zhou H, Weir MD, Melo MA, Levine ED, Xu HH. Effect of the dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate mass fraction on fracture toughness and antibacterial properties of CaP nanocomposite. J Dent. 2015 Dec;43(12):1539-46.
- Zhang N, Melo MA, Chen C, Liu J, Weir MD, Bai Y, Xu HH. Development of a multifunctional adhesive system for prevention of root caries and secondary caries. Dent Mater. 2015 Sep;31(9):1119-31.
- Cheng L, Zhang K, Weir MD, Melo MAS, Zhou XD, Xu HHK. Nanotechnology Strategies for Antibacterial and Remineralizing Composites and Adhesives to Tackle Dental Caries. Nanomedicine 2015 Mar;10(4):627-41.
- Zhang N, Chen C, Melo MAS, Bai YX, Zhou XD, Xu HHK. A novel protein-repellent dental composite containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine. International J Oral Sci 2015 Jun 26;7(2):103-9.
- Wu J, Weir MD, Melo MA, Xu HH. Development of novel self-healing and antibacterial dental composite containing calcium phosphate nanoparticles. J Dent. 2015 Mar; 43(3):317-26.
- Zhang N, Ma J, Melo MA, Weir MD, Bai Y, Xu HH. Protein-repellent and antibacterial dental composite to inhibit biofilms and caries. J Dent. 2015 Feb; 43(2):225-34.
- Melo MA, Lima JP, Passos VF, Rodrigues LK. The Influence of Dentin Demineralization on Morphological Features of Cavities Using Er: YAG Laser. Photomed Laser Surg. 2015 Jan; 33(1):22-8.
- Melo MAS, Passos VF, Lima JP, Parente GC; Rodrigues LKA; Santiago, SL. Evaluation of human dental enamel after erosive challenge with fresh and processed orange juices. J Dent Child. 2015; 82(1):10-5.
- Melo MA, Codes BM, Passos VF, Lima JPM, Rodrigues LK. In Situ Response of Nanostructured Hybrid Fluoridated Restorative Composites on Enamel Demineralization, Surface Roughness, and Ion Release. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 2014 Dec; 22 (4):185:190.
- Zhang N, Melo MA, Bai Y, Xu HH. Novel protein-repellent dental adhesive containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine. J Dent. 2014 Oct; 42(10):1284-91.
- Melo MA, Wu J, Weir MD, Xu HH. Novel antibacterial orthodontic cement containing quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate. J Dent. 2014 Sep; 42(9):1193-201.
- Vasconcelos SM, Melo MA, Wenceslau JP, Zanin IC, Beltrao HC, Fernandes CA, Almeida PC, Rodrigues LK. In situ assessment of effects of the bromide- and fluoride-incorporating adhesive systems on biofilm and secondary caries. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2014 Mar 1; 15(2):142-8.
- Guedes S, Melo MAS, Lima JP, Ely C, Rola AJS, Piva E, Rodrigues LK. Acid etching concentration as a strategy to improve the adhesive performance on Er:YAG laser and bur-prepared demineralized enamel. Photomed Laser Surg. 2014 Jul;32(7):379-85.
- Passos VF, Melo MA, Silva FFC, Rodrigues LK, Santiago SL. Effects of Diode Laser Therapy and Stannous Fluoride on Dentin Resistance under Different Erosive Acid Attacks. Photomed Laser Surg. 2014 2014 Mar; 32(3):146-51.
- Melo MA, Morais WA, Passos VF, Lima JPM, Rodrigues LK. Fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets by fluoride-releasing composite containing nanoparticles. Clin Oral Invest. 2013 May;18(4):1343-50.
- Melo MAS, Weir MD, Rodrigues, LKA. Xu HHK. Novel calcium phosphate nanocomposite with caries-inhibition in a human in situ model”. Dent Mater 2013 Feb; 29(2):231-40.
- Melo, MAS; Zanin ICJ; Lima JPM; Costa EF; Barros EB; Barros EB; Rodrigues LKA. “Characterization of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy-treated Mutans Streptococci by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)”. Photomed Laser Surg. 2013 Mar; 31(3):105-9.
- Melo MAS, Cheng L, Zhang K, Weir MD, Rodrigues, LKA. Xu HHK. “Novel antibacterial dental adhesive containing silver and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles” Dent Mater 2013 Feb; 29(2):199-210.
- Melo MA, Rolim JP, Zanin IC, Silva JJ, Paschoal AR, Ayala AP, Rodrigues LK. A comparative study of the photosensitizer penetration into artificial caries lesions in dentin measured by the confocal Raman microscopy. Photochem Photobiol. 2013 Oct 15. doi: 10.1111/php.12186. [Epub ahead of print].
- Melo MAS, Cheng L,Weir MD, Hsia R, Rodrigues, LKA. Xu HHK. “Novel dental bonding agents containing antibacterial agents and calcium phosphate nanoparticles”. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2013 May; 101(4):620-9.
- Lima JP, Melo MA, Passos VF, Braga CL, Rodrigues LK, Santiago SL. Dentin erosion by whitening mouthwash associated to tooth brushing abrasion: a focus variation 3D scanning microscopy study. Microsc Res Tech. 2013 Sep; 76(9):904-8.
- Melo MA, Silva FFC, Passos VF, Santiago SL, Rodrigues LK. Preventive effect of LED/laser irradiation-activated fluoride on short time dentin erosion. Photon Lasers Med 2013 May-Jun; 2 (3): 209-216.
- Melo MAS, Goes, DC, Moraes, MDR, Santiago, SL. Rodrigues. Effect of Chlorhexidine on the bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system to sound and artificially demineralized dentin. Braz Oral Res. 2013 May-Jun;27(3):218-24
- Melo MAS; Passos VF; Silva, NRFA; Fernandes CAO. “A case report of 3-year clinical follow-up of Y-TZP-supported crowns fabricated with MAM/MAD technology with slow cooling rate porcelain application”. Am J Esthet Dent. 2013; 3:38–50.
- Passos VF; Melo MAS; Vasconcelos AA; Bodstein HSM; Rodrigues LKA; Santiago, SL. “Comparison of measurement methods in the quantification of surface loss and softening by erosion and erosion/abrasion of enamel and dentin”. Microsc Res Tech. 2013 Feb; 76(2):178-83.
- Borges FM, Melo MAS, Lima JP, Zanin IC, Rodrigues LK. “Antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine digluconate in dentin: In vitro and in situ study”. J Conserv Dent. 2012 Jan; 15(1):22-6.
- Cheng L, Zhang K, Melo MAS, Weir MD, Zhou X, Xu HHK. “Anti-biofilm dentin primer with quaternary ammonium and silver nanoparticles”. J Dent Res. 2012 Jun; 91(6):598-604.
- Zhang K, Melo MAS, Cheng L, Weir MD, Bai Y, Xu HHK. “Effect of quaternary ammonium and silver nanoparticle-containing adhesives on dentin bond strength and dental plaque microcosm biofilms”. Dent Mater. 2012 Aug; 28(8):842-52.
- Rolim JP, Melo MAS, Guedes SF, Albuquerque-Filho FB, de Souza JR, Nogueira NA, Zanin IC, Rodrigues LK. “The antimicrobial activity of photodynamic therapy against Streptococcus Mutans using different photosensitizers”. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2012 Jan 5; 106:40-6.
- Melo, MAS, Passos VF, Apolonio FB, Rego RO, Santiago SL, Rodrigues LKA. “Restoring esthetics in eroded anterior teeth: a conservative multidisciplinary approach”; Gen Dent 2011; 59(1):48-52.
- Melo MAS, Passos VF, Alves JJ, Barros EB, Santiago SL, Rodrigues LKA. “The effect of diode laser irradiation on dentin as a preventive measure against dental erosion: an in vitro study”. Lasers Med Sci. 2011 Sep; 26(5):615-21.
- Monteiro-Oliveira MA, Rodrigues LKA, Melo MAS, Nobre-dos-Santos M. “Photodynamic Therapy Effect in Carious Bovine Dentin – An In Vitro Study”. J Oral Laser Appl 2010; 10: 29-36.
- Melo, MAS; De-paula, D M; Lima JPM; Borges FMC; Steiner-oliveira C; Nobre-dos-santos M; Zanin ICJ; Barros EB; Rodrigues LKA. “In vitro photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in dentine contaminated by cariogenic bacteria”. Laser Phys 2010, v. 20, p.1-10.
- De-paula DM, Melo MAS, Lima JPM, Nobre-dos-santos M., Zanin ICJ, Rodrigues LKA. “In vitro assessment of thermal changes in human teeth during photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy performed with red light sources”. Laser Phys. v. 20, n. 6, pp. 1–6, 2010.
- Borges, FMC; Melo, MAS; Lima, JPM.; Zanin, ICJ; Rodrigues ,LKA ; Nobre-dos-santos M. “Evaluation of the effect of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in dentin caries: a pilot in vivo study”. In: 2010 SPIE. (Org.). SPIE Proceedings, v. 7549, p. 75490, 2010.
- Sousa RP, Zanin IC, Lima JP, Vasconcelos SM, Melo MAS, Beltrão HC, Rodrigues LKA. “In situ effects of restorative materials on dental biofilm and enamel demineralization”. J Dent. 2009 Jan;37(1):44-51
- Lima, JPM; Melo, MAS; Borges, FMC; Teixeira, AH; Steiner-oliveira, C; Nobre dos santos, M; Rodrigues, LKA; Zanin, IC. J. “Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in a model of dentine caries”. Eur J Oral Sci 2009, v. 117, p. 568-574.
- Melo MAS; Silva TPT; Saboia VPA. “Colagem de Fragmento Autógeno em Dentes Posteriores como uma Abordagem Conservadora - Relato de Caso”. (Homogenous dental bonding of dental fragment in a permanent posterior tooth - a clinical case report). JBC. Jornal Brasileiro de Clínica Odontológica Integrada e Saúde Bucal Coletiva, v. ed esp, p. v. 01, p. 01, 2006. (In Portuguese).
- Freire filho FWV; Freire EF; Melo MAS; Pinheiro D P; Cauby AF. “Angina de Ludwig: relato de caso” (Ludwig angina: case report). Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia e Periodontia, v. 1, p. 190-196, 2003 (In Portuguese).