The predoctoral program of instruction in orthodontics is directed toward providing the dental student with the knowledge and skills necessary to recognize an established or developing malocclusion, provide preventive and therapeutic treatment within the scope of the general dental practice, consult as a team member with the specialist, refer cases requiring specialist care as appropriate, and coordinate comprehensive care of the patient. Instruction in orthodontics occurs during three years of the dental program. Didactic and laboratory exercises provide a strong foundation for delivery of limited orthodontic treatment as part of an adult and child patient's comprehensive dental care. Elective and clerkship opportunities are available for those who wish to pursue additional course work and clinical experience. The department conducts research in growth and development, experimental and diagnostic imaging, the biology of tooth movement, properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic materials, and the physiology of facial musculature.