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Professor Cyril EnwonwuMicrobial Pathogenesis

Selected Publications

1) Enwonwu, CO. Global nutrition transition challenges oral health.Comp Cont Dent Edu, 2010 (in press)

2) Enwonwu, CO. Vitamin supplements and health. In FOOD CONSTITUENTS AND ORAL HEALTH, (ed ). Wilson,M. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, UK, 2009, pp: 296 – 330.                                                          

3) Enwonwu, CO. Noma: The ulcer of extreme poverty. N Eng J Med. 2006; 354 :221 – 224.                         

4) Enwonwu, CO, Falkler, WA, Phillips, RS. Noma (cancrum oris ). The  Lancet, 2006; 368:147 – 156.                       

5) Phillips, RS, Enwonwu, CO, Falkler, WA  Pro –versus anti-inflammatory cytokine profile in African children with acute oro-facial necrosis (cancrum oris, noma). Eur Cytokine Netw. 2005;16:169-176. 

6) Enwonwu, CO, Ritchie, CS. Nutrition and inflammatory markers. JADA 2007; 138: 70 – 73.                          

**7) Enwonwu, CO, Afolabi, BM, Salako, L, et al. Hyperphenylalaninemia in African children with Falciparum malaria. Quarterly J Medicine, Oxford, UK. 1999; 92: 495 – 503.

8) Enwonwu, CO, Phillips, RS, Ferrell, CD.  Temporal relationship between the occurrence of fresh noma and the timing of linear growth retardation in Nigerian children.  Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2005; 10: 65-73.

9) Enwonwu, CO, Phillips, RS, Savage, KO.  Inflammatory cytokine profile and circulating cortisol level in malnourished children with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. European Cytokine Network, 2005; 16: 240-8.

10) Enwonwu, CO.  Ruminations on the Causation of Noma.  Stomatologie, 2007; 104.1: 43-48.

11) Enwonwu, C O, Afolabi, B M, Salako, L, Idigbe, E O, Bashirelahi, N.  Increased Plasma Levels of Histidine and Histamine in Falciparum Malaria:  Relevance to Severity of Infection.  Journal of Neural Transmission, 2000; 107: 1273-1287.

12) Sawiris, P G, Enwonwu, C O.  Ascorbate Deficiency Impairs the Muscarinic-Cholinergic and beta-Adrenergic Receptor Signalling Systems in the Guinea Pig Submandibular Salivary Gland.  Journal of Nutrition, 2000; 130: 2876-2882.

13) Enwonwu, CO, Warren, R.  Nutrition and HIV-Infection/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.  In: R. Watson (ed.), NUTRITION and AIDS III.  CRC Press, Florida, 2001; Chapter 13, pp. 175-192.

14) Paster, B J, Falkler, Jr., W A, Enwonwu, C O, Idigbe, E O, Savage,  K O, Levanos, V A, Tamer, M A, Erickson, R L, Lau, C N, Dewhirst, F E.  Prevalent bacterial species and novel phylotypes in advanced noma lesions.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002; 40 (no. 6): 2187-2191.

15) Falkler, WA, Enwonwu, C O, Idigbe, E O.  Isolation of Fusobacterium necrophorum from NOMA (CANCRUM ORIS).   American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1999; 60: 150-156.

16) Enwonwu, C O, Falkler, Jr., W A, Idigbe, EO, Afolabi, MB, Ibrahim, M, Onwujekwe, D, Savage, KO, Meeks, VI.  Pathogenesis of oro-facial gangrene (noma),  Confounding Interactions of Malnutrition and Infection.  Americal Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1999; 60: 223-232. 

17) Falkler, WA, Enwonwu, CO, Ewell, AJ, Idigbe, EO.  Isolation of Fusobacterium from the Oral Cavities of Malnourished Nigerian Children Living in Agricultural and Herding Villages.  Oral Diseases, 2000; 6: 103-105.

18) Enwonwu, C O, Falkler, Jr., WA, Idigbe, EO.  Oro-facial gangrene (Noma/Cancrum Oris): pathogenetic mechanisms. Critical Reviews of Oral Biology and Medicine, 2000; 11: 159-171.

19) Enwonwu, CO and Meeks, VI. Bionutrition and Oral Cancer in the Human. Critical Reviews of Oral Biology and Medicine, 6: 5-17, 1995.

20) Enwonwu, CO. Noma: A neglected scourge of children in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 73: 541-545, 1995.

21) Enwonwu, CO and Meeks, VI.  Oral Candidiasis, HIV, and Saliva Glucocorticoids.  American Journal of Pathology, 1996; 148: 1313-1318.

22) Contreras, A, Falkler, WA, Enwonwu, CO, Idigbe, EO, Savage, KO, Afolabi, BM, Onwujekwe, D, Rams, TE, Slots, J.  Human Herpesviridae in Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis in children in Nigeria.  Oral Microbiology and Immunology, 1997; 12: 259-265.

23) Enwonwu, CO, Xi-Xiang, Xu, and Turner, EA. Nitrogen Metabolism in Sickle Cell Anemia: Free Amino Acids in Plasma and Urine.  The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 300: 366-371, 1990.

24) Enwonwu, CO. Amino Acid Availability and Control of Histaminergic Systems in the Brain.  In: Proceedings of NATO - Advanced Research Workshop on Amino Acid Availability and Brain Function in Health and Disease, G. Huether (editor) 1, NATO ASI Series, Vol. H20, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988, pp. 167-173.

25) Enwonwu, CO. The Role of Dietary Aflatoxin in the Genesis of Hepatocellular Cancer in Developing Countries.  Lancet, 2: 956-958, 1984.

26) Enwonwu, CO and Okolie, EE. Differential Effects of Protein Malnutrition and Ascorbic Acid Deficiency on Histidine Metabolism in the Brain of Infant Non-human Primates. Journal of Neurochemistry, 41: 230-238, 1983.

27) Enwonwu, CO and Worthington, BS. Regional Distribution of Homocarnosine and Other Ninhydrin-Positive Substances in Brains of Malnourished Monkeys.  Journal of Neurochemistry, 22: 1045-1052, 1974.

28) Enwonwu, CO and Worthington, BS. Concentrations of Histamine in the Brain of Guinea Pigs and Rats During Dietary Protein Malnutrition.  Biochemical Journal (England), 144: 601-603, 1974.

29) Worthington, BS and Enwonwu, CO. Functional Variations in the Ultrastructure of Thyroid Gland in Protein-Calorie Deficient Monkeys.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 28: 66-78, 1975.

30) Enwonwu, CO and Worthington, BS. Elevation of Brain Histamine Content in Protein-Calorie Deficient Rats. Journal of Neurochemistry, 24: 941-945, 1975.

31) Enwonwu, CO. Protein Synthesis in the Perfused Liver: Comparative Evaluation of the Influence of Amino Acid Supply on Ribosomal Activity in Intact and Isolated Perfused Rat Liver.  In:Plasma Protein Turnover, edited by R. Bianchi, G. Mariani, and A.S. McFarlane, The MacMillan Press Ltd., pp 191-216, 1976.

32) Enwonwu, CO, Worthington, BS and Jacobson, KL. Protein-Energy Malnutrition in Infant Non-human Primates (M. Nemestrina).  I. Correlation of Biochemical Changes with Fine Structural Alterations in the Liver. British Journal of Experimental Pathology, 58: 78-94, 1977.

33) Enwonwu, CO. Alterations in Ninhydrin-Positive Substances and Cytoplasmic Protein Synthesis in the Brains of Ascorbic Acid Deficient Guinea Pigs, Journal of Neurochemistry, 21: 69-78, 1973.

34) Enwonwu, CO, Stambaugh, RV, and Jacobson, KL. Protein-Energy Deficiency in Non-human Primates: Biochemical and Morphologic Alterations.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 26: 1287-1302, 1973.

35) Enwonwu, CO and Worthington, BS. Accumulation of Histidine, 3-Methylhistidine, and Homocarnosine in Brains of Protein-Calorie Deficient Monkeys.  Journal of Neurochemistry, 21: 700-708, 1973.

36) Enwonwu, CO. Restitution of Secretory Proteins as Reflected by Changes in Polyribosomal Organization in Salivary Glands of Rats Treated With Isoproterenol.  Laboratory Investigation, 27: 199-208, 1972.

37) Enwonwu, CO. Distribution of Free and Membrane-Bound Ribosomes in Livers of Protein-Calorie Deficient Rats.  Laboratory Investigation, 26: 626-636, 1972.

38) Enwonwu, CO. Epidemiological and Biochemical Studies of Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis and Noma (Cancrum Oris) in Nigerian Children.  Archives of Oral Biology, 17: 1357-1372, 1972.

39) Enwonwu, CO and Munro, HN. Changes in Liver Polyribosome Patterns Following Administration of Hydrocortisone and Actinomycin D. Biochemica et. Biophysica Acta, 238: 264-276, 1971.

40) Enwonwu, CO, Stambaugh, RV, and Sreebny, LM. Synthesis and Degradation of Liver Ribosomal RNA in Fed and Fasted Rats.  Journal of Nutrition, 101: 337-346, 1971.

41) Enwonwu, CO and Munro, HN. Rate of RNA Turnover in Rat Liver in Relation to Intake of Protein. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 138:532-539, 1970.

42) Enwonwu, CO. and Sreebny, LM. Experimental Protein-Calorie Malnutrition in Rats: Biochemical and Ultrastructural Studies. Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 12: 332-353, 1970.

** Article 7 above is included because of its potential relevance to the Neurological Complications encountered in severe / cerebral  malaria as confirmed by subsequent workers on the pathophysiology of  the dreaded disease.                                                                                                 

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Selected references